Thursday, September 5, 2019

Endothelial Dysfunction

The endothelium lines the inside of the blood and heart vessels. It is a thin membrane which helps regulate blood clotting, immune function and controls vascular relaxation. When endothelial dysfunction occurs, the ability to perform these tasks is reduced due to the blood vessels not functioning properly.
This dysfunction transpires as a result of an imbalance between vasoconstricting substances, which narrows blood cells and vasodilation substances, which widen blood cells.  In endothelial dysfunction, vasodilation is impaired and the arteries begin to lack the ability to dilate properly.  This dysfunction can be a significant predictor of coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis, a chronic disease which can cause a stroke or heart attack.
Endothelial dysfunction can be caused by several conditions including diabetes or hypertension, as well as factors such as smoking. However, lifestyle changes can be madeto correct endothelial dysfunction, which can reduce the risk of further cardiovascular complications.

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Tuesday, September 3, 2019

Do statins really work? Who benefits? Who has the power to cover up the side effects?

It’s been almost 35 years since scientists Brown and Goldstein won the Nobel prize for discovering how blood cholesterol played a central role in development of heart disease. It was their work that led to pharmaceutical industry developing statins.

 These are drugs that lower cholesterol, and they both reduced heart attacks, and extended lifespan, within a few years of prescription. Just how significant the impact was and how reliable this data is we’ll come to later. In 1996, Goldstein and Brown confidently predicted that we may now see the end of heart disease before the beginning of the 21st century[2].

However, their prophecy was never fulfilled. On the contrary the decades long campaign to lower cholesterol through diet and drugs has completely and utterly failed to curb the global pandemic of heart disease. Indeed, heart disease still remains the biggest killer in the western world and the UK has recently seen a rise in death rates from the condition for the first time in 50 years[3].

It is still little known or understood amongst the wider medical community that insulin resistance, linked to excess body fat is the most important risk factor for heart attacks[4]. It is also a clear sign of impending type two diabetes. A disease which has become the single largest cost to the NHS, accounting for approximately 10% of the budget.

The good news is that Insulin resistance can be effectively combatted through a combination of dietary changes, moderate activity and psychological stress reduction[5].

Unfortunately, we remain trapped in a flawed model for heart disease, which promotes low fat high carbohydrate diets and the replacement of saturated fat with polyunsaturated fats. This, despite that fact that. when tested in multiple randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (considered the gold standard form of evidence) no real benefit has ever been seen from reducing saturated fat or even replacing it with polyunsaturated fat despite significant reductions in blood cholesterol. In fact, the dietary guidelines may have caused harm, as pointed out by two cardiologists in a stinging peer reviewed paper recently published in the BMJ’s Evidence Based Medicine Journal[6].

The authors also point out two trials actually revealed an INCREASE in death rates from the group that lowered cholesterol versus the one’s that didn’t. Cardiologist and Editor in chief of JAMA internal medicine, Professor Rita Redberg pertinently points out “ cholesterol is just a lab number, who cares about lowering cholesterol unless it actually translates into a benefit for patients? [7]”

Yet the fear of cholesterol is very much imprinted on the minds of doctors and members of the public. A message that has been enthusiastically driven by a multi-billion-dollar low-fat cholesterol lowering industry. Next year it’s predicted that total revenues from sales of cholesterol lowering statin drugs could reach US $1 trillion[8].

All of this raises and important question. Is high cholesterol really a risk factor for heart disease at all?

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Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Ginger - WebMD

Ginger is a plant with leafy stems and yellowish green flowers. The ginger spice comes from the roots of the plant. Ginger is native to warmer parts of Asia, such as China, Japan, and India, but now is grown in parts of South American and Africa. It is also now grown in the Middle East to use as medicine and with food.

Ginger is commonly used for various types of "stomach problems," including motion sickness, morning sickness, colic, upset stomach, gas, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), nausea, nausea caused by cancer treatment, nausea caused by HIV/AIDS treatment, nausea and vomiting after surgery, as well as loss of appetite.

Other uses include pain relief from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis, menstrual pain, and other conditions. However, there is not strong evidence to support the use of ginger for these conditions.
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Health Benefits of Ginger for Arthritis

Do you keep ginger in your spice cabinet? Maybe it should be in your medicine cabinet. Besides being a tasty spice often used to enhance holiday treats, ginger can soothe upset stomachs and diminish nausea, and studies show it may help pain and inflammation, too. 

In fact, a University of Miami study concluded that ginger extract could one day be a substitute to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The study compared the effects of a highly concentrated ginger extract to placebo in 247 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. The ginger reduced pain and stiffness in knee joints by 40 percent over the placebo.

“Research shows that ginger affects certain inflammatory processes at a cellular level,” says the study’s lead author, Roy Altman, MD, now at the University of California, Los Angeles.

What makes ginger so helpful? “Ginger has anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and antioxidant activities, as well as a small amount of analgesic property,” says Roberta Lee, MD, vice chair of the Department of Integrative Medicine at Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City.

Choosing the most effective form of ginger may be the biggest challenge to reaping its rewards. Ginger comes in capsules, tinctures, teas, powders, oils and foods made from the dried or fresh root of the ginger plant. While many forms of ginger boast health benefits, Dr. Lee says capsules provide better benefits than other forms. She advises people to look for brands that use “super-critical extraction,” because it results in the purest ginger and will provide the greatest effect. She also suggests taking ginger capsules with food. Why? Although small amounts of ginger can help settle a sour stomach, concentrated doses can actually cause stomach upset.
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Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Turmeric and Curcumin for Arthritis: Does It Actually Help Relieve Pain?

Turmeric: This centuries-old spice often used in curries is now popping up in chips, protein bars, even chocolate. It’s touted for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and has been studied as a natural protection against certain cancers and treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. The potential health benefits stem from curcumin — turmeric’s most active compound.

So, Can Turmeric Help Treat Arthritis? Data from animal research and small, preliminary trials on patients suggest that curcumin may help ease arthritis symptoms. In one pilot study, 45 people with rheumatoid arthritis took either curcumin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (diclofenac sodium), or a combination of the two. After eight weeks, the curcumin-only group reported the most improvement in symptoms, without any negative gastrointestinal side effects.

Research on using curcumin for osteoarthritis is even more promising. In an early study published in Phytotherapy Research, participants with mild-to-moderate knee osteoarthritis who took a curcumin supplement saw significant improvements in pain and physical function after six weeks, compared to placebo. Other research has shown turmeric extract was as effective as ibuprofen (a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) for knee OA pain — with fewer GI effects. And a recent analysis of research published in the Journal of Medicinal Food on turmeric extracts concluded that eight to 12 weeks of treatment with standardized turmeric extracts can reduce pain due to arthritis, compared with placebo.

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Saturday, July 27, 2019

Adjacent Disc Disease After Lumbar Fusion by Dr. Tony Mork

Billie: I posted these comments to encourage study before undertaking spinal surgery.  Beware of later effects of drugs and surgery.

Kevin Buttner:
If you really need to have this surgery, for the reasons described above, then you'll know it. I had four regular disc operations, but to no avail. The fifth was a fusion, because clearly there wasn't going to be something else to fix this for me. So I had the fusion, knowing about ADD. It sort of comes down to having no choice and then taking your chances with the fusion and the possible negative side effects.

Studies on this topic tend to disagree quite a bit, with some clinics deliberately presenting far too positive results. The studies done on artificial disc replacements have been proven to be exceptionally sketchy and the results cannot be trusted. Besides that, several artificial discs have been proven to contain toxic materials.

Long story short: sometimes you just have to have the fusion. In that case, you might as well accept the risks of long term problems and hope for the best. A healthy lifestyle with the building of strong core muscles, NO SMOKING, no overweight and lots of light activity (especially cycling, hiking and swimming) will give you the best odds. But other than that, you're going to have to leave it up to chance. Good luck to you all.

 Anni Mack:
Doctors know what happens after fusion - the disc above takes a lot of strain, causing stenosis and severe cauda equina! Spinal fusions are still offered as the cure all for back pain! Adjacent disc disease is usually not mentioned!

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Friday, July 26, 2019

Why You Need to do Everything to Avoid Surgery for Back Pain

Excellent, Billie ... If you are a candidate for back surgery watch this...

Illinois Back Institute: Feb 6, 2017
Presented by Dr Jeff Winternheimer D.C.

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Thursday, July 25, 2019

Why Avoid Back Surgery at all Costs-Try this instead. Avoid Back Fusions.

Famous Physical Therapists Bob Schrupp and Brad Heineck give their opinion on why you should avoid back surgery at all costs. Especially back fusions. They advocate trying a conservative approach first.

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The agony of opioid withdrawal — and what doctors should tell patients about it

The United States accounts for five percent of the world's population but consumes almost 70 percent of the total global opioid supply, creating an epidemic that has resulted in tens of thousands of deaths each year. How did we get here, and what can we do about it? In this personal talk, Travis Rieder recounts the painful, often-hidden struggle of opioid withdrawal and reveals how doctors who are quick to prescribe (and overprescribe) opioids aren't equipped with the tools to eventually get people off the meds.

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Pain Management: Discontinuing Opioids

Interview with patient on opioids for chronic pain management and demonstrating aberrant behaviors. Interview utilizes a motivational interviewing approach and addresses discontinuing opioid prescription.

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My Spinal Fusion experience 10 Weeks out

Hey Guys, This is my experience with having a Spinal Fusion 6 months after having a micro-discectomy. This is how I came to the decision to fuse it and how the recovery has been up to 10 weeks. Hope it's helpful to anyone who may need to have a spinal fusion. I am fused at low can you go.... 

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life after low back surgery 3 levels of spinal fusion vlog 110

over 8 years of back pain leads me to this point here the first day of my low back surgery. I am having 3 levels of my spin fused together so 3 levels of spinal fusion. There will be rods, screws, cages, spacers and bone grafts in my lower back at L3,L4 L4,L5 L5,S1 I also have drop foot and hope the movement in my foot comes back after surgery.

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Friday, July 19, 2019

5 Natural Treatments for a Herniated Disc

In this video, you will learn 5 natural ways to treat a herniated disc, a disc bulge or lower back pain.

 1. Diet The collagen diet is ideal to heal and repair a damaged disc and tissue. You can find collagen in bone broth liquid, which when consumed on a regular basis is the best dietary thing you can do to heal and repair. Eating bone broth protein 2-3 times a day is a must.

You will also want to get more antioxidants through foods such as blueberries. The perfect breakfast would be a smoothie with blueberries, some collagen powder or bone broth protein powder, coconut milk, and anti-inflammatory herbs such as ginger root. Then follow up with lunch and dinner of soup or stew made with bone broth protein.

 2. Supplements Collagen or bone broth protein powder for essential amino acids Omega 3 fish oils MSM Sulfur containing supplement for joint repair Anti-inflammatory herbs such as turmeric for damaged tissue

 3. Egoscue If you have poor posture, it will put extra stress on that disc and cause a herniated disc.This form of physical therapy assigns you a specific set of exercises and stretches to restore your posture and is crucial to treating this type of injury.

 4. Prolotherapy (PRP) Platelet Rich Plasma Injections are important to repair damaged tissue. When you injure your low back, ligaments can become lax and your muscles may spasm while trying to make up for it, which can actually be the root cause of your pain.

 5. Corrective Chiropractic Care Corrective Chiropractic is essential to retrain your body and get correct spinal curvatures back. Since 90% of chiropractors would do a correction that could possibly cause ligaments to become more loose, it is crucial to find someone in your area who specifically practices corrective chiropractic care.

 *This content is strictly the opinion of Dr. Josh Axe, and is for informational and educational purposes only. It is not intended to provide medical advice or to take the place of medical advice or treatment from a personal physician. All viewers of this content are advised to consult their doctors or qualified health professionals regarding specific health questions.

Neither Dr. Axe nor the publisher of this content takes responsibility for possible health consequences of any person or persons reading or following the information in this educational content. All viewers of this content, especially those taking prescription or over-the-counter medications, should consult their physicians before beginning any nutrition, supplement or lifestyle program.

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Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Hope for injection of cells to regenerate spine discs

Scientists have developed a new method of stopping or reversing disability and pain caused by degenerative disc disease in the spine using cell therapies, according to a proof-of-concept study published in the journal Biomaterials.

Researchers from the Duke Pratt School of Engineering at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, have developed new biomaterials capable of delivering a booster shot of reparative cells to the nucleus pulposus (NP), effectively stopping pain caused by degenerative disc disease.

The NP is the "jelly-like" cushioning found between the spinal discs. According to the researchers, the NP tissue distributes pressure and provides spine mobility, helping to soothe back pain. Degenerative disc disease is a common spinal condition caused by the breakdown of intervertebral discs. It is more likely to occur as a person ages, where the discs begin to wear thin and lose their ability to cushion the spine. This can lead to further complications, such as arthritis.

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How to Get Well and Heal Bulging & Herniated Discs

How to Get Well and Heal Bulging & Herniated Discs (Comprehensive Review) - Dr Mandell

 The biggest problems that we face in our society is over-medicating, treating the symptoms rather than treating the cause of the condition. There are a combination of strategies that must be taken (physical, emotional, mechanical, nutritional, etc.) to help the bodies natural healing process.

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Saturday, July 13, 2019

X-Stop Spacer Treatment for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

UCLA Health, May 28, 2010 X-STOP®
Allows Machinist to Fulfi ll His Retirement Dream

One morning back in December 2004 when 58-year-old Mark Casale tried to get out of bed, he fell to the fl oor. For an entire year afterward, the man who once routinely hiked 6-7 miles a day in the hills above his Southern California home could not walk a step. "It scared the heck out of me," he recalled. "I couldn't get up out of bed. I gained 25 pounds, which I still need to lose. I was very depressed. I couldn't work at my job as a machinist at Lockheed Martin or do anything." His primary care physician first thought Mark was suffering from peripheral arterial damage caused by his diabetes. But an MRI detected that Mark's inability to walk due to severe pain from his buttocks all the way to his feet was caused by lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) in his L3 and L4 vertebrae.

What is Lumbar Spinal Stenosis (LSS)?

LSS is a narrowing of the spinal canal that impinges on the nerves in the spinal canal or on the nerves exiting to the legs. This can lead to persistent pain in the buttocks, limping, lack of feeling in lower extremities and decreased physical activity. LSS is the largest indication for back surgery in people over 50, who make up the fastest growing demographic population in the world. It is estimated that 1.2 million people in the United States alone suffer from LSS, with over 200,000 diagnosed patients admitted to U.S. hospitals annually. Patients who are diagnosed with LSS initially receive conservative treatment such as bed rest, support devices, physical therapy and pain medications before moving on to surgical remedies. Initially, conservative treatment allowed Mark to walk short distances and return to work.

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Friday, July 12, 2019

Epidural Steroid For Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Pros and Cons

Dr. Tony Mork, MD, Nov 27, 2012 Epidural Steroid For Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Pros and Cons by Dr. Tony Mork

 Advanced Spine Surgery - Learn your pain relief options - Avoid Spine Fusion Visit:
Learn more about minimally invasive endoscopic spine / back surgery and Save Thousands on your spine surgery!
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Wednesday, July 10, 2019

VA Eyes Keto Diet-Based Diabetes Treatment, But Questions Remain

Researchers with the San Francisco-based company say the approach is clinically proven. In one study, 238 of 262 patients who completed the first 10 weeks saw their A1C levels -- the marker that indicates diabetes -- drop by 1%. Their weight fell an average 7%, and their need for medication declined.

A year later, among the 218 patients still enrolled, insulin therapy had been reduced or eliminated in 94% of patients and no patients were taking drugs to lower blood glucose levels.

"We saw diabetes reversal in about 60 percent of people we treated in one year," Anand Parikh, Virta's head of finance, legal and human resources, told "I can tell you that ... those results have been sustained after two years. We've seen 12% weight loss, and those results also have been sustained for two years. This is world-changing medicine."

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Thursday, July 4, 2019

World Renown Heart Surgeon Speaks Out On What Really Causes Heart Disease

We physicians with all our training, knowledge and authority often acquire a rather large ego that tends to make it difficult to admit we are wrong. So, here it is. I freely admit to being wrong.. As a heart surgeon with 25 years experience, having performed over 5,000 open-heart surgeries,today is my day to right the wrong with medical and scientific fact.

 I trained for many years with other prominent physicians labelled “opinion makers.” Bombarded with scientific literature, continually attending education seminars, we opinion makers insisted heart disease resulted from the simple fact of elevated blood cholesterol.

 The only accepted therapy was prescribing medications to lower cholesterol and a diet that severely restricted fat intake. The latter of course we insisted would lower cholesterol and heart disease. Deviations from these recommendations were considered heresy and could quite possibly result in malpractice.

 It Is Not Working!
These recommendations are no longer scientifically or morally defensible. The discovery a few years ago that inflammation in the artery wall is the real cause of heart disease is slowly leading to a paradigm shift in how heart disease and other chronic ailments will be treated.

The long-established dietary recommendations have created epidemics of obesity and diabetes, the consequences of which dwarf any historical plague in terms of mortality, human suffering and dire economic consequences.

Despite the fact that 25% of the population takes expensive statin medications and despite the fact we have reduced the fat content of our diets, more Americans will die this year of heart disease than ever before.

Statistics from the American Heart Association show that 75 million Americans currently suffer from heart disease, 20 million have diabetes and 57 million have pre-diabetes. These disorders are affecting younger and younger people in greater numbers every year.

Simply stated, without inflammation being present in the body, there is no way that cholesterol would accumulate in the wall of the blood vessel and cause heart disease and strokes. Without inflammation, cholesterol would move freely throughout the body as nature intended. It is inflammation that causes cholesterol to become trapped.

Inflammation is not complicated -- it is quite simply your body's natural defence to a foreign invader such as a bacteria, toxin or virus. The cycle of inflammation is perfect in how it protects your body from these bacterial and viral invaders. However, if we chronically expose the body to injury by toxins or foods the human body was never designed to process,a condition occurs called chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation is just as harmful as acute inflammation is beneficial.

What thoughtful person would willfully expose himself repeatedly to foods or other substances that are known to cause injury to the body? Well,smokers perhaps, but at least they made that choice willfully.

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The Road To Recovery after Lumbar Spine Surgery

Johns Hopkins Outpatient Center
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

This book will:
- Prepare you for surgery
- Explain what to expect during and after surgery
- Guide you through the recovery process

The most important thing to remember is the sooner you return to being active – the sooner you will be on the road to recovery.

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Bilateral Laminotomies via One-sided Approach

Stenosis is a condition that can develop as a person ages, particularly in those over 50. It is characterized by a narrowing of the spinal canal, which places pressure on the spinal cord and nerves, because there is not enough room for them. It resembles placing a ring on your finger.

 A unilateral decompressive laminectomy is carried out on the side of the overgrowth. The lamina above and below the narrowing may be removed partially or completely.

 Using a minimally invasive laminectomy, the location of the incision is often established by an intraoperative X-ray, using fluoroscopy. A skin incision about 1 inch in length is made to one side of the middle of the back at the surgical level. Dilators are placed sequentially to split the muscle down to the lamina, the back part of the spine.

 A retractor is then placed to hold the muscle tissue back and allow surgical access to the spine. Using a microscope, soft tissue is removed and the bone exposed. Use of a microscope improves the lighting and vision in the surgical area, making the surgery more precise and accurate.

 Specially designed surgery instrumentation is then used to remove bone spurs and the lamina on the side of the approach. This is referred to as a lumbar laminectomy or lumbar decompression. The table is then tilted and the spinous process undercut. The anterior portion of the lamina on the opposite side may then be removed. The ligament under the bone is opened and removed using special instruments. The disc can also be inspected.

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Tuesday, July 2, 2019

Laminectomy and Spinal Stenosis: Risks and Complications

Open lumbar laminectomy surgery is a common procedure used to treat the symptoms of spinal stenosis. While the complications of this surgery are rare, there may be a few risk factors that can delay or prevent the success of the surgery.

Some risk factors may increase the likelihood of complications during or after lumbar laminectomy surgery. A few examples of these risks include...

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Microlaminectomy is performed for patients with symptomatic, painful lumbar spinal stenosis. It is performed to remove the large, arthritic osteophytes (bone spurs) that are compressing the spinal nerves. Most spine surgeons continue to use a rather large surgical incision and exposure without the use a microscope when performing a lumbar laminectomy, which involves a long hospital stay and prolonged recovery period. However, Dr. Spoonamore prefers to perform a microscopic surgical approach using a small, poke-hole incision, with minimal dissection, to accomplish a lumbar decompression of three spinal levels or less. This minimally invasive approach allows for a more rapid recovery, and may provide an improved long-term outcome because there is less muscle and tissue damage.

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Monday, July 1, 2019

Ivor Cummins Shreds the Cholesterol Hypothesis & Reveals the Root Cause of Heart Attack

Ivor Cummins, BE(Chem) CEng MIEI, explores the cholesterol hypothesis of heart disease and tears it apart. Watch as Ivor turns the light of his engineer brain onto the dark, muddled mess that is modern medical thought.

 An engineer who has a special interest in cardiovascular health through nutrition, Ivor is quickly changing the paradigm of medical thought as to what causes chronic disease in humans.

You will love the end of this video when he reveal the real root cause of the chronic disease epidemics we are currently suffering.

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Tendinopathy: Why the Difference Between Tendinitis and Tendinosis Matters

The most important reason to distinguish between tendinitis and tendinosis is the differing treatment goals and timelines. The most prominent treatment goal for tendinitis is to reduce inflammation, a condition that isn’t present in tendinosis. In fact, some treatments to reduce inflammation are contraindicated with tendinosis. Ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, is associated with inhibited collagen repair(). Corticosteroid injections inhibited collagen repair in one study, and were found to be a predictor of later tendon tears(,,).
The healing time for tendinitis is several days to 6 weeks, depending on whether treatment starts with early presentation or chronic presentation(). Khan et al.() state that treatment for tendinosis recognized at an early stage can be as brief as 6–10 weeks; however, treatment once the tendinosis has become chronic can take 3–6 months. It is suggested by Rattray and Ludwig() that effective treatment might take up to 9 months once the tendinosis is chronic. Knowing these timelines is part of creating an effective treatment plan. Khan() reportedly suggests that tendons “require over 100 days to make new collagen.” Given this claim, treating chronic tendinosis for a matter of weeks would provide little benefit to the long-term repair of the tendon.
It is a matter of coincidence that some of the separate treatment goals for tendinitis and tendinosis result in overlapping beneficial treatment methods. For example, deep-friction treatments are beneficial for both conditions, but for very different reasons. In the case of tendinitis, deep friction serves to reduce adhesions and create functional scar tissue once inflammation has subsided. In the case of tendinosis, deep-friction treatments serve to stimulate fibroblast activity and collagen production(). Lucky concurrence of treatment recommendations is not to be substituted for a thorough understanding of which condition is being treated. Accurate assessment techniques and knowledge of the relevant condition will result in the most appropriate application of treatment.
The primary treatment goals for tendinosis are to: break the cycle of injury; reduce ground substance, pathologic vascularization, and subsequent tendon thickening; and optimize collagen production and maturation so that the tendon regains normal tensile strength().

Macrophages in Alzheimer’s disease

A historical perspective:
The longstanding debate surrounding the role of microglia/macrophages in AD was initially ignited by landmark studies in the late 1980s and early 1990s by Henryk Wisniewski and Janusz Frackowiak. Wisniewski and Frackowiak observed that microglia, while capable of engulfing Aβ in vitro, were not competent Aβ phagocytes in vivo. Using electron microscopy to examine the ultrastructure of these enigmatic cells, Wisniewski noted that microglial cells associated with Aβ plaques in AD patient brains did not contain Aβ deposits within lysosomal compartments. However, in the rare comorbidity of stroke with AD, brain-infiltrating macrophages did contain lysosomal β-amyloid fibrils (Wisniewski et al. 1989; Wisniewski et al. 1991; Frackowiak et al. 1992). These observations led to the conclusion that, while microglia did not have the ability to clear Aβ from the extracellular brain milieu, peripheral macrophages could “home” to and remove Aβ in vivo by phagocytosis.

As with any important and thought-provoking work, Wisniewski’s results sparked numerous questions. Was there a true disparity between microglia and peripheral macrophages regarding Aβ clearance? Were infiltrating macrophages capable of limiting cerebral amyloidosis? Why were infiltrating macrophages restricted from the AD brain in the absence of stroke comorbidity? Answering these questions would prove difficult due to a number of obstacles. For instance, aside from morphological differences, distinguishing between activated microglia and macrophages can be complex as they share many of the same cell surface receptors and signaling proteins. In fact, despite the enlightening observations by Wisniewski et al., it would take nearly two decades for availability of modern cellular and molecular biology techniques to address the conditions under which peripheral macrophages were capable of removing brain.

Boosting Autophagy to Treat Atherosclerosis

What is Autophagy?
 Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that delivers unwanted cell components to a cellular garbage disposal system known as the lysosome. The lysosome uses powerful enzymes that break down the unwanted material for recycling.

 However, as we age, the lysosomes become clogged up with materials that are so fused together that not even the potent enzymes can destroy them. This causes the lysosomes to become dysfunctional, and eventually the cell dies.

This is a particular problem for long-lived cells with a very low rate of replacement, such as the heart, the back of the eyes, nerve cells, and other cells that rarely divide if at all. Ultimately, as more and more cells become dysfunctional over time due to lysosome dysfunction, tissue function becomes impaired and age-related disease sets in.///

 Macrophages and heart disease.
 Macrophages are responsible for cleaning up many kinds of cellular waste, including misfolded proteins, excess fat droplets, and dysfunctional organelles, and they are the housekeepers of the body. They protect our blood vessels from damage by the toxic byproducts of cholesterol, and they work by surrounding these toxic byproducts and breaking them down in their lysosomes into useful materials.

However, macrophages can become dysfunctional from the accumulation of lysosomal waste that they cannot break down. Over time, macrophages consume ever more amounts of toxic materials, and eventually their lysosomes become filled with insoluble waste that cannot be destroyed.

 This causes the macrophages to eventually stop functioning and either become trapped and immobile in the artery wall or simply die. It is the buildup of trapped macrophages in the arterial wall that is the basis of arterial plaques, which lead to heart disease. Eventually, once the plaques grow too large, the injury swells and bursts, sending out clots that trigger strokes and heart attacks.

One of the potential ways to address this problem is by increasing autophagy in macrophages, which makes them better at dealing with the toxic waste and helps them to resist stress. It is the hope of some researchers to find ways to improve autophagy, thereby making macrophages more robust and slowing the accumulation of lysosomal waste, thus reducing the risk of heart disease.

Heart Disease root causes - and the tests that can save your life !

Ivor Cummins:
My talk recorded at the May 11th Dublin Cardiovascular event, prior to the free screening of The Widowmaker Movie. Event organised by Alan Crean of DCU, sponsored by David Bobbett and the team - and a great night it was too! We had around 200 people in this superb lecture theatre - not bad for an event starting at 6pm on a Wednesday evening :-)

Spinal Stenosis: Cause and Correction

Dr. Bergman explains how spinal stenosis can develop and how to reverse it so you can have a healthy spine for life.

AUTOPHAGY FASTING - How Long Should You Fast to Maximize Your Health Benefits?

What happens if you fast for 13 hr 2:16
Growth Hormone 2:49
How long should you fast to get maximum of Autophagy 3:15

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