Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Discovery of long-lived macrophages in the intestine

Macrophages are specialised immune cells that destroy bacteria and other harmful organisms. KU Leuven scientists, Belgium, have come to the surprising conclusion that some macrophages in the intestines of mice can survive for quite some time. Most importantly, these long-lived macrophages are vital for the survival of the nerve cells of the gastrointestinal tract. This sheds new light on neurodegenerative conditions of the intestine, but also of the brain.

 In the immune system macrophages play the role of PacMan: they are white blood cells that clean up foreign substances by engulfing them. Apart from this, macrophages themselves provide vital growth factors and support for different tissues in the body, allowing them to function and develop properly. As such, these specialised immune cells are soldier and nourisher at the same time. Their proper functioning is immensely important in the intestine, as they have to differentiate between harmful bacteria, harmless bacteria and nutritional components.

Scientists assumed that macrophages in the intestine are short-lived and live for about three weeks at most in both mice and humans before being replaced by new cells. A KU Leuven study now shows that this is not entirely true, explains Professor Guy Boeckxstaens. "We've discovered that a small part of the macrophages in mice is long-lived. We marked certain macrophages and found that they still functioned after at least eight months. They can be found in very specific places in the intestine, particularly in close contact with nerve cells and blood vessels."
READ ARTICLE: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180830113017.htm

​Inflammation in Atherosclerosis: Macrophage Functions​

Macrophages are highly active and mobile cells that function at multiple levels within the innate immune system. Derived from circulating monocytes, macrophages police the intimal and medial layers below the endothelium of vessels, capturing pathogens, dead cells, and cellular debris. When necessary, they emit an array of chemical messengers to the cells around them to orchestrate changes as part of an immune response. Macrophages are central to vascular inflammation and their role in atherosclerosis was recently reviewed in detail.

 In healthy individuals, there are few, scattered resident macrophages in all tissues. Part of their function is to maintain sterility in their immediate region by migrating through the tissue and ingesting and killing pathogens. Macrophages are uniquely designed to capture pathogens because their surfaces bristle with receptors that specifically detect, bind, and internalize those targets. Macrophages also are coated with receptors to capture and ingest dead cells and a wide array of cellular debris that they find in their vicinity. 
READ ARTICLE: https://www.caymanchem.com/Article/2103

The use of medical Cannabis to treat osteoarthritis and arthritis

Osteoarthritis or chronic degenerative arthropathy is a degeneration of the cartilage of the joints without inflammation or infection. In the joint, the cartilage cracks and disappears, this is followed by bone growths that interfere with movement. It´s a very frequent alteration, 85% of people older than 70 years old are affected by this condition. It is characterised by the difficulty to perform movements and by daytime pain. Repetitive trauma (mechanical), obesity (metabolic) or menopause (hormonal) are the causes of osteoarthritis.

 On the other hand, arthritis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the body’s joints without chronic damage of the cartilage. By extension, when only one joint is affected, the correct terminology is monoarthritis, from two to four damaged joints we talk about oligoarthritis and when there are more, it´s known as polyarthritis. It is characterised by severe tendon pain, redness, heat sensation, swelling, body aches and stiffness. Its origin can be: infectious or rheumatic (rheumatoid: it´s an autoimmune disease that can have many extra-articular manifestations).

 The rheumatoid polyarthritis is the first chronic polyarthritis, mainly in adults, with more than 60 million people affected worldwide. The mechanisms that lead to its emergence are genetic and environmental. A dysfunction of the immune system activates cells that normally defend the body against infections and create antibodies that attack the synovial membrane, a tissue that protects joints from destruction, this causes damage to the cartilage, muscle tendons and bones. Therefore, the junction zones between the bone ends present deformations.

Medical cannabis as a treatment for osteoarthritis
Humans have an Endocannabinoid System (ECS), which includes endogenous ligands and receptors. These receptors also work with cannabidiol or tetrahydrocannabinol (the chemicals found in the active cannabis plant). This interaction causes changes in the cells of many parts of the body. This activation is essential for the body to function with normality.

 Cannabidiol (CBD) is responsible for many therapeutic properties. It is used to treat inflammation, anxiety, nausea, convulsions, and pain, among others.

 The scientific community recognizes that CBD can activate cannabinoid receptors in mammals without side effects or psychoactive effects.

 Recent studies have shown an active involvement of the Endocannabinoid System in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis. The results reinforce the interests on medical cannabinoids for this disorder, especially to regulate joint function and to be a magnificent analgesic and anti-inflammatory. Another publication showed preclinical evidence that CB2 receptors of the endocannabinoid system were a very good receptor for CBD, and that this attenuates peripheral immune cells and modulates central pain sensitivity, particularly at the knee.
READ ARTICLE: https://www.kalapa-clinic.com/en/treatment-arthritis-medical-cannabis/


Marijuana isn't just reserved for "pot smoking" teenagers, stoners, and artists! If you suffer from chronic pain--whether it be back, joint, osteoarthritis, or from an injury--you're probably more intrigued than ever with the idea of "marijuana as medicine". After all, marijuana has never been more mainstream and accepted by patients and providers alike. If you're thinking about trying marijuana for pain relief, you've come to the right place! In this article, we're going to break down how marijuana for chronic pain works, the pros and cons of taking cannabis to treat pain, and whether or not it's a viable, legal option for you in your home state.

 Marijuana is commonly referred to "cannabis", "weed", "pot" or if you're a product of the 70's, "grass". For the last decade, marijuana has become a much more accepted treatment for pain (somatic, visceral, neuropathic), arthritis, muscle spasms, stress, and other conditions, like cancer and even PTSD. No longer is marijuana just associated with smoking a joint, ordering an XL pizza, and watching "stoner" flicks. For many patients and clinicians, marijuana is an accepted part of a multimodal pain management strategy. In other words, marijuana is medicine.

 Cannabinoids are the active, chemical compounds in cannabis flowers that have medicinal properties. These compounds are used to treat symptoms like pain, inflammation, and nausea. When ingested, these chemical compounds interact with different receptors in the body (including your body's natural cannabinoid receptors).

 Cannabis has an estimated 85-113 different types of cannabinoids (THC is just the most well-known cannabinoid compound). Some of these cannabinoids (compounds) have proven medical value with cannabinoids for pain relief. The chemical compounds CBC, CBD, CBN, and THC are all found in marijuana and linked to pain relief, arthritis relief, and help with inflammation, fibromyalgia, spinal injury, and more.

READ ARTICLE: https://www.peerwell.co/blog/2018/02/01/marijuana-treat-chronic-pain-osteoarthritis/

Medical Marijuana For Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) affects more than 30 million people in the United States. Arthritis is an incredibly frustrating condition to live with. Easy tasks like standing up, opening a jar or walking around the supermarket are unbearable due to chronic pain. Only a few treatments have offered arthritis sufferers effective relief, leaving them to turn to anti-inflammatory medications, potentially-addictive painkillers and even invasive surgery.

 However, many osteoarthritis sufferers are now turning to medical marijuana for osteoarthritis to relieve their pain, inflammation and other OA symptoms without the harsh side effects other treatments come with.

 What Is Osteoarthritis?
OA is the most common type of arthritis. It occurs when you have “wear and tear” on the end of your bones, an area called your protective cartilage. Even though osteoarthritis may damage any one of your joints in your body, it mostly affects the joints in your knees, hands, spine and hips.

 You can effectively manage your OA symptoms, but you can’t reverse the underlying process. Maintaining a healthy weight, staying active and other treatments can improve joint function, reduce pain and slow the progression of the disease, but there is no known cure.
READ ARTICLE: https://www.marijuanadoctors.com/conditions/osteoarthritis/

Medical Cannabis

Since 2001, medical cannabis (also known as marijuana) has been a legal treatment option in Canada for certain health conditions, including arthritis. An estimated two thirds of Canadians who use cannabis for medical purposes do so to help manage arthritis symptoms.

 "Medical cannabis" refers to any products (either natural or synthetic) made from cannabis or its active ingredients, and intended for health purposes. In Canada, the supply of medical cannabis is controlled by the federal government, which regulates licensed sellers who manufacture and distribute product under strict oversight and control. The Cannabis Regulations – specifically Part 14: Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes sets the rules for how patients can access medical cannabis in Canada.

 Education Resources
These resources can help people living with arthritis understand medical cannabis and its place among the potential treatment options for management of arthritis symptoms.

READ ARTICLE: https://arthritis.ca/treatment/medication/medical-cannabis

Can Cannabis Help Repair Arthritic Joints?

As our nation’s baby boomers age, they’re facing a multitude of health-related ailments and costs. One of the most prominent concerns is the prevalence of chronic arthritis, an ailment that affects 52.5 million adults today, and that number is expected to increase to 67 million by 2030. There’s no cure for arthritis, and limited treatment options exist for the painful and limiting disease.

 One alternative that’s gaining popularity among the aging population is the use of cannabis to get full-bodied pain relief and anti-inflammatory properties. Although arthritis is considered a qualifying condition in at least two states, there’s a remarkable lack of data and research behind the effectiveness of cannabis as a treatment alternative for arthritis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

 A study published in the journal Rheumatology from Dr. Sheng-Ming Dai of China’s Second Military Medical University found that CB2 receptors are found in unusually high levels in the joint tissue of arthritis patients. The use of cannabis is shown to fight inflammation in the joints by activating the pathways of CB2 receptors.

 Canadian researcher Dr. Jason McDougall, a professor of pharmacology and anesthesia at Dalhousie University in Halifax, has undertaken a new study to find out if medical marijuana can help repair arthritic joints and relieve pain. The study is supported by the Arthritis Society and is awarding a grant for a comprehensive, three-year study to investigate if cannabis is not just dampening the pain in the brain, but also working to fight inflammation and repair the joint itself.

READ ARTICLE: https://www.leafly.com/news/science-tech/the-medical-minute-can-cannabis-help-repair-arthritic-joints

Monday, April 22, 2019

CBD vs THC: Health Benefits, Dosage, Side-Effects, Legal Status and More

Dr. Victor H Chou, M.D. is the Founder and Medical Director of the Medical Marijuana Clinic of Louisiana, the first medical marijuana specialty clinic in Louisiana. He can be reached through his official website, MarijuanaClinicLa.com.
From nearly 70 cannabinoids isolated to date, cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are the two most popular and most well-researched.
Currently, several other cannabinoids are being researched, including cannabigerol (CBG) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV).
Aside from these active ingredients, it is estimated that cannabis possesses over 120 active compounds, serving as a powerful combination for treating various conditions. [1]
Also known as phytocannabinoids, THC and CBD are two naturally occurring compounds in the cannabis plant that possess various differences and similarities. There is an ongoing debate about which component offers greater healing powers, so we will try to provide a through answer to cover this topic of discussion.
However, as we are entering the scientific world of these two cannabinoids, it will becomes more and more clear that there is no CBD vs. THC in the true sense of the word, but two components with different healing properties, each unique on their own.
Let’s take a look at their chemical structure, psychoactive components, health benefits, legal status, interaction with the endocannabinoid system, entourage effect, side-effects, benefits for chronic pain, and more.

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Small Dense Low-Density Lipoprotein as Biomarker for Atherosclerotic Diseases

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a key role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. LDL consists of several subclasses of particles with different sizes and densities, including large buoyant (lb) and intermediate and small dense (sd) LDLs. It has been well documented that sdLDL has a greater atherogenic potential than that of other LDL subfractions and that sdLDL cholesterol (sdLDL-C) proportion is a better marker for prediction of cardiovascular disease than that of total LDL-C. Circulating sdLDL readily undergoes multiple atherogenic modifications in blood plasma, such as desialylation, glycation, and oxidation, that further increase its atherogenicity. Modified sdLDL is a potent inductor of inflammatory processes associated with cardiovascular disease.

Several laboratory methods have been developed for separation of LDL subclasses, and the results obtained by different methods can not be directly compared in most cases. Recently, the development of homogeneous assays facilitated the LDL subfraction analysis making possible large clinical studies evaluating the significance of sdLDL in the development of cardiovascular disease. Further studies are needed to establish guidelines for sdLDL evaluation and correction in clinical practice.

High incidence of atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD) urges the study of the causes and the risk factors of their development. Atherosclerotic plaque growth is dependent on the uptake of circulating cholesterol by subendothelial cells. Hypercholesterolemia is one of the well-understood risk factors of atherosclerosis, and cholesterol-lowering therapy is widely used in clinical practice for treatment of CVD. However, the CVD risk reduction achieved in most of the clinical studies was not higher than 30% indicative of other important risk factors that have to be taken into account. A strong line of evidence demonstrates that the development and progression of atherosclerosis are dependent not only and not so much on the amount as on the specific properties of circulating lipoproteins.

READ ARTICLE: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5441126/

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Pain relief for tendons

I have had tendonitis and tendonosis for years due to a reaction to antibiotics. The best pain relief I had was a topical 2.5% Menthol gel. I used it long term without apparent side effects. I get it at a 99 cent store so it is inexpensive. I prefer to avoid aspirin for regular use.

It is "Family Circle Muscle & Joint vanishing scent gel". It has no smell and is absorbed into the skin without a residue.

Recovery from Tendonosis and Tendonitis

🧠 5 Popular Drugs That Cause Memory Loss & May Lead To Alzheimer's

Dr. Sam Robbins:
Do you want to increase your energy and improve your memory?

Watch video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7wSMOFsBCX8

Why CBD Works Better With a Little THC (Even If You Don’t Want to Get High)

Products with a balance of THC and CBD are becoming more commonplace in cannabis shops
as consumers realize the value of cannabinoid synergy. (Elise McDonough for Leafly)
In fact, Project CBD—a non-profit dedicated to boosting science-based understanding of cannabidiol—has compiled an extensive list of pervasive misconceptions, one of which is “CBD is medical, THC is recreational.”  On the contrary, even small doses of THC combined with CBD can improve the efficacy of your cannabis medicine.

 Originally, cannabis contained far less THC than it typically does now, and a lot more CBD. But over time, breeders have created ever more potent strains, as that’s what fetches the best price in the underground market. These breeders certainly understood that selecting for greater potency meant maximizing THC output, but just ten years ago few had even heard of CBD, never mind realized it was steadily getting bred out of existence.

 Project CBD was founded in 2009, a time when CBD had almost entirely vanished from the cannabis gene pool. The organization’s founders recognized that while there’s long been evidence of CBD’s medical efficacy, unlike THC, it wasn’t reaching actual medical cannabis patients in appreciable amounts. So they worked directly with cannabis labs in California (then a new phenomenon) to identify the few remaining CBD-rich strains in circulation and make them available to growers, researchers and patients.

 Which means you can put them down as big fans of CBD. Just don’t put down THC while you’re doing it.

The best available science makes clear that whole-plant cannabis preparations are quantifiably superior to single compounds because the plant’s complex mix of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids interact synergistically to create an “entourage effect” that enhances each other’s therapeutic effects.

 A study conducted at the California Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco found that combining THC and CBD produces more potent anti-tumor effects when tested on brain cancer and breast cancer cell lines than either compound alone.

A 2010 study found that patients with intractable cancer-related pain tolerated medicines that combined THC and CBD notably better than a pure THC extract.
A 2012 study in the Journal of Psychopharmacology found that CBD “inhibits THC-elicited paranoid symptoms and hippocampal-dependent memory impairment”

READ ARTICLE:  https://www.leafly.com/news/health/why-cbd-works-better-with-thc

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Dose-Dependency of Resveratrol in Providing Health Benefits

This review describes the dose-dependent health benefits of resveratrol, a polyphenolic antioxidant that is found in a variety of foods, especially grape skin and red wine. Resveratrol provides diverse health benefits including cardioprotection, inhibition of low-density lipoprotein, activation of nitric oxide (NO) production, hindering of platelet aggregation.

View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (111) and promotion of anti-inflammatory effects. Studies have shown that at a lower dose, resveratrol acts as an anti-apoptotic agent, providing cardioprotection as evidenced by increased expression in cell survival proteins, improved postischemic ventricular recovery and reduction of myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis and maintains a stable redox environment compared to control.

At higher dose, resveratrol acts as a pro-apoptotic compound, inducing apoptosis in cancer cells by exerting a death signal.
At higher doses, resveratrol depresses cardiac function, elevates levels of apoptotic protein expressions, results in an unstable redox environment, increases myocardial infarct size and number of apoptotic cells.

At high dose, resveratrol not only hinders tumor growth but also inhibits the synthesis of RNA, DNA and protein, causes structural chromosome aberrations, chromatin breaks, chromatin exchanges, weak aneuploidy, higher S-phase arrest, blocks cell proliferation, decreases wound healing, endothelial cell growth by fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor, and angiogenesis in healthy tissue cells leading to cell death.
Thus, at lower dose, resveratrol can be very useful in maintaining the human health whereas at higher dose, resveratrol has pro-apoptotic actions on healthy cells, but can kill tumor cells.

It is now well known that resveratrol protects human health by diverse mechanisms. It received importance during early nineties in the context of “French paradox”; the phenomena wherein certain population of France, in spite of eating a regular high fat diet, was less susceptible to heart diseases (Richard 1987).

The apparent cardioprotection was attributed to the regular consumption of moderate doses of red wine rich in resveratrol in their diet (Kopp 1998)[14] P. Kopp, Resveratrol a phytoestrogen found in red wine a possible explanation for the conundrum of the ‘French paradox’,  Cited By in Scopus (118). Resveratrol is a natural antioxidant; it can scavenge some intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS).

READ ARTICLE: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2990065/

Friday, April 12, 2019

The nutrition study the $30B supplement industry doesn’t want you to see

A decade-long observational study of more than 30,000 people finds that certain vitamins and minerals may help extend your life and keep you from dying of cardiovascular disease—but only if you get those beneficial nutrients from foods, not supplements.

The study, published this week in the Annals of Internal Medicine, is yet another to find that taking supplemental vitamins and minerals—either individually or in multivitamins—offers no discernible benefits in terms of reducing risks of death generally or death from cardiovascular disease and cancers, specifically. Simply put, popping pills can’t take the place of eating a healthy diet—an unflashy takeaway that likely won’t please the massive, $30 billion supplement industry.

 Moreover, the study didn’t just find a lack of benefits from supplements. It also found potential harms. Getting high doses of calcium (1,000 mg or more per day) from supplements—but not from foods—was linked to higher cancer mortality risks in the study. Likewise, people taking vitamin D supplements who didn’t have vitamin D deficiencies may have higher risks of all-cause mortality and death from cancers.

 Based on the supplement and food reports from each participant, the researchers estimated how much of each major micronutrient participants got each day. The researchers broke the estimates down by source (food vs supplement) and noted whether they were below recommended levels, on target, or in excess.

 At first glance, those taking supplements seemed to fare well—showing a reduced risk of all-cause mortality during the survey. But that association vanished when the researchers considered demographic and health data. “Our results and those of others suggest that supplement users have higher levels of education and income and a healthier lifestyle overall (for example, better diet, higher levels of physical activity, no smoking or alcohol intake, and healthy weight) than nonusers,” they wrote. Thus, “the apparent association between supplement use and lower mortality may reflect confounding by higher socioeconomic status and healthy lifestyle factors that are known to reduce mortality.”

READ ARTICLE: https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/04/the-nutrition-study-the-30b-supplement-industry-doesnt-want-you-to-see/

Thursday, April 11, 2019

Study Establishes Complex Relationship Between Statin Use and Parkinson’s Risk

As such, there is a hypothesis that statins can protect against neurodegenerative diseases. “Growing evidence has revealed that statins decrease the [alpha]-synuclein burden and dopaminergic cell death in animal and cell models of PD [Parkinson’s disease],” researchers wrote.

 However, this link remains inconsistent. While some studies report that using statins lowers the likelihood of a person developing Parkinson’s, other studies report the exact opposite — that statin use increases Parkinson’s risk. Other studies report no association at all. Importantly, these studies haven’t typically divided statin users based on cholesterol levels, or on their time-varying status of statin use.

 “[P]revious conflicting results regarding the association between statin use and PD risk might be derived from this complicated interrelationship among cholesterol levels, statin adherence, and PD risk,” researchers explained.

 To gain insight into this possible relationship, researchers analyzed data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service, which insures 97% of the South Korean population and includes data on disease diagnoses and medication use. The investigators focused on patients who were older than 60 in 2002 and excluded patients who already had been diagnosed with Parkinson’s or had other neurological conditions like dementia.

 Overall, statin users were more likely than non-users to develop Parkinson’s. However, the relationship was less clear-cut when researchers examined people who took different amounts of statins.

 While those who used relatively low amounts of statins (for less than one year) were significantly more likely to develop Parkinson’s, this association disappeared among people who took more of the drug more frequently (365 to 540 days). “With increasing duration and adherence to statin treatment, the trend of statins facilitating PD disappeared,” the investigators wrote.


Wednesday, April 10, 2019

Dr. John Whitcomb Seminar - Vitamin K2 - Super Vitamin, Hidden Before Our Eyes

Dr John E Whitcomb - Board Certified in Holistic and Integrative Medicine - discusses the power of vitamin K2 in this seminar. Can you imagine curing your cavities without a dentist? Can you imagine delivering a baby after only 30 minutes of labor? Or, curing osteoporosis without bone density drugs? How about pulling calcium OUT of your coronary arteries?

Learn how Vitamin K2 controls your calcium metabolism with many fascinating implications. Find out how Vitamin K2 completes what Vitamin D begins, find out more about Vitamin K2 at MDCustomRx.com

Watch video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jPWCJxyHAg4

Forget LDL - Focus on Remnant Cholesterol (short)

Remnant Cholesterol = total cholesterol - HDL - LDL

High Triglycerides Versus Bad Cholesterol: What You Need to Know

Although you may know what your total cholesterol level is and be aware of the difference between bad cholesterol and good cholesterol, you may not know that your triglyceride level is an equally important part of your blood lipids profile. In fact, high triglycerides are as dangerous as bad cholesterol when it comes to your risk for heart disease.

 According to researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), high triglycerides could be a problem for one-third of all Americans. A recent article published in the Archives of Internal Medicine revealed that one-third of adults in the United States have borderline high triglyceride levels, and one in five have high triglyceride levels. Though high triglyceride levels have increased dramatically over the past 30 years, only 1.3 percent of people with high triglycerides are taking medication approved to lower triglyceride levels. These findings suggest that triglyceride levels need to get more attention.

READ ARTICLE: https://www.everydayhealth.com/heart-health/high-triglycerides-versus-bad-cholesterol.aspx

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Eric Westman, MD, MHS -- LCHF Treatment of Diabetes

Eric Westman, MD, MHS
Associate Professor of Medicine: Duke University
Director: Duke Lifestyle Medicine Clinic, Duke University
Medical Director: Duke Center for Smoking Cessation, Duke University

Dr. Westman received his MD from the University of Wisconsin/Madison, completed an internal medicine residency and chief residency at the University of Kentucky/Lexington, and completed a General Internal Medicine Fellowship at Duke University, which included a Masters Degree in clinical research.

He has been at Duke since 1990, has over 90 peer-reviewed publications, and is currently the Director of the Duke Lifestyle Medicine Clinic. He is Chairman of the Board of the Obesity Medicine Association (formerly, the American Society of Bariatric Physicians) and a Fellow of the Obesity Medicine Association and the Obesity Society. He is author of the New York Times Bestseller The New Atkins for a New You, Cholesterol Clarity, and Keto Clarity.

Watch video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iBLCi0KbYkM

Sunday, April 7, 2019

Dr. Eric Westman - 'LCHF and Diabetes: Theory and Clinical Experience'

Dr. Eric C. Westman is an associate professor of medicine at Duke University Health System and director of the Duke Lifestyle Medicine Clinic.

 Dr. Westman combines clinical research and clinical care to deliver lifestyle treatments for obesity, diabetes and tobacco dependence. He is an internationally known researcher specialising in low-carbohydrate nutrition and is co-author of 'The New Atkins For A New You', 'Keto Clarity' and 'Cholesterol Clarity'. He has also helped do several high-quality scientific studies on low carb.

 Dr. Westman is currently the vice president of the American Society of Bariatric Physicians and a fellow of the Obesity Society and the Society of General Internal Medicine.

Watch video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pgMizC6sQ6w

Friday, April 5, 2019

Scientists Discover How to Grow New Blood Vessels

Scientists have discovered how heart disease patients with dangerously blocked arteries are able to grow new blood vessels to by-pass the blockage, and keep oxygen-rich blood flowing through their bodies. The discovery is raising the possibility of new treatments for cardiac patients. 

In people with heart disease, it is not uncommon for new blood vessels to grow around blocked arteries in order to keep essential, oxygenated blood coursing through the body. But those emergency blood vessels don’t grow in everyone with coronary artery disease.

Researchers have been working for more than a decade trying to coax new blood vessel formation, or angiogenesis, using human growth factors, specific enzymes and hormones that promote cellular growth.

But Michael Simons, a cell biologist and head of cardiovascular research at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, says scientists found that growth factors only went so far in stimulating new blood vessel growth.

“They do that in normal animals and in normal people. But they did not work in people with advanced illnesses, and we never understood why," said Simons.

READ ARTICLE: https://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=5661589173989308679#editor/target=post;postID=5227525943641022776

Bypassing bypass surgery by growing new arteries

The human body is endlessly fascinating, isn’t it? Consider how humans get started in the first place – only after one tiny sperm, one of hundreds of millions, has somehow negotiated its way past the lethal acid coating the vagina and made its long journey up to the waiting egg.  The odds are stupefyingly against that one brave little sperm.

 Before my heart attack, I had never heard of the heart’s little collateral arteries. These are small, normally closed arteries that, in times of dire need (like a blocked coronary artery that leads to a heart attack) can wake up, open wide, and enlarge enough to form a kind of detour around the blockage, thus providing an alternate route of blood supply to feed the oxygen-starved heart muscle. Do-it-yourself bypass surgery!

Consider also the example of Juliet’s life-saving collateral arteries. At the age of 46, this young mother of two in London, England suffered a heart attack due to Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection (SCAD).

 Like most SCAD patients, she had no cardiac risk factors, and was very healthy at the time. (Just the day before, she had gone on a 40-minute run). But her early heart attack symptoms were initially misdiagnosed, and she now suspects that the tear in her artery may have unraveled further by the time she underwent a diagnostic angiogram. Juliet ended up with five stainless steel stents implanted along the length of her torn Left Anterior Descending (LAD) coronary artery.

READ ARTICLE: https://myheartsisters.org/2009/08/18/bypass/

Wednesday, April 3, 2019

The ketogenic diet for Alzheimer’s prevention and treatment: can it help?

My elderly parents, fiercely independent, living on their own, and aging relatively well, are highly motivated to keep their brains functioning at an optimal level. A significant loss of cognitive skills in either one of them would seriously threaten their cherished freedoms and greatly reduce their quality of life.
Over the last three years their daughters, sons-in-law, and some grandchildren had embraced the ketogenic diet and they’d heard us extol about how great we were feeling. Some of us remarked on our feelings of improved mental clarity —an unexpected bonus from the ketogenic lifestyle.
So they wondered: could drastically cutting carbohydrates and eating more fat benefit their brains? My Mom was having some memory problems that frustrated and scared her, such as having difficulty writing down items on a shopping list: she knew what she needed but the names or spellings sometimes would not come. She had voluntarily given up driving last year as she knew that at random times, especially under stress, she would have moments of confusion. Dad was still very sharp, but he felt his memory was not as strong as he would like. Could a ketogenic diet help slow or halt more cognitive decline at their late stage of life?

Read article: https://www.dietdoctor.com/low-carb/benefits/alzheimers

Dr. Peter Attia: Readdressing Dietary Guidelines

Dr. Peter Attia discusses the history behind our beliefs about fat and cholesterol's effects on our body systems and uses data to debunk myths. For more information, visit www.sternspeakers.com/peter-attia-md.

Watch video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nhzV-J1h0do

Coronary Calcification - and Fixing the Root Causes of Heart Disease

Ivor Cummins:

My latest talk at the Low Carb Universe conference (Nov 15th 2018, Mallorca)
It's not so hard to avoid chronic disease - but you gotta know how !

1:44 "If you don't measure it" - the Power of CAC
6:19 The importance of Calcification Progression - watch your score over time
8:53 DRUGS - the latest story on Statins
10:46 LDL "Bad Cholesterol" versus Insulin - judged by CAC / Atherosclerosis
12:07 LDL "Bad Cholesterol" versus the Total:HDL ratios and Insulin Issues
14:17 Spot the IMPORTANT Risk Factors here !
16:22 OMG - majority of Americans are essentially diabetic? The Elephant in the Room/// 17:59 WHY so much chronic disease?
22:00 The Root Cause Diagram explains
24:24 Introduction to Part 2 - the Cholesterol Particles in Heart Disease

Remnant Cholesterol – What Every Low Carber Should Know

I want to introduce you to something called Remnant Cholesterol . And if you’re on a Keto diet, this will be especially relevant.

 It is very simply calculated: you just subtract HDL Cholesterol (HDLc) and LDL Cholesterol (LDLc) from your Total Cholesterol. For example, if your Total Cholesterol were 300, your LDLc 200, and HDLc 80, then you’d have a Remnant Cholesterol (RC) of 20. That’s 300 – 200 – 80 = 20.

You can be forgiven if you thought Total Cholesterol was simply LDLc + HDLc. I thought so too before I was into keto since I was always told, “cholesterol is divided into two types, LDL and HDL…” — wrong! That little gap of cholesterol left over is very, very meaningful. When fasted, it is the cholesterol found in Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) and Intermediate Density Lipoproteins (IDL). When not fasted, it includes those two and Chylomicron Remnants.

Why This is a Problem?
You see, these lipoproteins mentioned above aren’t supposed to be hanging around in the blood for very long. VLDLs pop out of the liver ready to drop off fat-based energy in the form of Triglycerides (TG) from the getgo. They bounce around your vascular system binding to tissues that need the energy and get smaller and smaller from less cargo in the process. From there they are remodeled to IDLs, which are then cleared by the liver or remodeled again to an LDL. This succession of stages to the final LDL takes under 90 minutes. So how long do LDLs hang out? 2-4 days...

Read article: https://cholesterolcode.com/remnant-cholesterol-what-every-low-carber-should-know/

‘Remnant’ Cholesterol Linked With CVD Risk, Even When LDL Levels Are Low

Advanced lipoprotein profiling among individuals with low LDL cholesterol levels suggests that triglyceride-rich remnant particles, specifically small very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, are associated with an increased risk of incident cardiovascular events.  
Among individuals with a median LDL cholesterol of 55 mg/dL on statin therapy, each standard-deviation (SD) increase in small VLDL particles increased the risk of MI, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, revascularization, or cardiovascular death by approximately 70%. For individuals with the most elevated VLDL particles, those in the highest tertile, the risk of cardiovascular events was more than 3.5 times higher compared with those with the lowest levels of VLDL particles.
The researchers, led by Patrick Lawler, MD (Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA), suggest these atherogenic remnant particles might represent a potential target for reducing residual risk in patients maximally treated with statin therapy. 
In the decades since statins and other lipid-modifying agents were introduced, LDL cholesterol levels have decreased in both primary and secondary prevention, senior investigator Samia Mora, MD (Brigham and Women’s Hospital), told TCTMD. “Then the question is, though, why are some people still having events?”
In primary prevention, approximately 1 in 10 patients managed with statin therapy to lower LDL cholesterol levels will have a clinical event over a 5-year period, Mora continued. In secondary prevention, approximately 1 in 5 patients will have a recurrent event. One theory is that, in the past, the risk associated with other lipids or lipoproteins might have been eclipsed by those high LDL cholesterol levels, say the researchers. 
“Many people think, well, your LDL cholesterol is very low, I don’t need to do anything else related to lipids and now we can look at other pathways related to cardiometabolic disease,” said Mora. “The question we asked was whether there were any other lipid measures of risk that we could identify. Maybe LDL cholesterol is not the best way to measure cardiovascular risk?”

Read article: https://www.tctmd.com/news/remnant-cholesterol-linked-cvd-risk-even-when-ldl-levels-are-low

Tuesday, April 2, 2019

The Cholesterol Conundrum - and Root Cause Solution

Quiz time...
How do you make a Sump Wrestler massively obese and Metabolic Syndrome deranged and morbidity very high?

Feed him 10 bowls of rice each day and lots of beer... all carbs...
Animals are fattened with carbs.

How do farmers rapidly fatten cattle before slaughter?

Grain feeding. Pure carbohydrate. Pure glucose.

Ivor Cummins:
A detailed analysis of Cholesterol Science using an Engineering Problem Solving approach. Included is a clear explanation of the Cholesterol Metabolic Processes, related Diseases, and most importantly a clear summary of the key risk factors and how they can be influenced by your genetic type and your dietary strategy. Please see Comment Section below for an index to the various content sections, so you can jump to the ones of most interest; for best understanding though, it should be watched sequentially.
Produced for the benefit of all, and to encourage open scientific discourse on this important topic. Best Regards, Ivor.

Watch Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fuj6nxCDBZ0

Monday, April 1, 2019

LDL Cholesterol, Particle Number and Particle Size Made Easy

Measurements of lipids levels in blood are frequently used to assess the risk of future heart disease. The most commonly used measurements are total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). These numbers are then used to calculate low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), which has been found to be strongly correlated with the risk of heart disease.
Recently measurements of atherogenic lipoprotein particles, such as LDL-P (LDL particle number), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and lipoprotein(a) have been found to be very useful to assess risk.
LDL-P measures the actual number of LDL particles (particle concentration). LDL-P may be a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than LDL-C. Low LDL-P is a much stronger predictor of low risk than low LDL-C. In fact, about 30 – 40% of those with low LDL-C may have elevated LDL-P. Therefore you can have low LDL-C but still be at risk for heart disease, particularly if your LDL-P is elevated. Discordance is considered present if LDL-C differs from LDL-P.
LDL-C is a measure of the cholesterol mass within LDL-particles. LDL-C only indirectly reflects the atherogenic potential of LDL particles. ApoB and LDL-P on the other hand reflect the number of atherogenic particles, with no mention of cholesterol mass. ApoB and LDL-P are believed to be better risk predictors than LDL-C.
Many recent studies have looked into the importance of LDL-particle size. Studies show that people whose LDL particles are predominantly small and dense, have a threefold greater risk of coronary heart disease. Furthermore, the large and fluffy type of LDL may be protective.